Reason for curly hair

Straight hair are due to the follicles that produce round strands whereas curly hair are due to follicles that produce oval strands. Curly hair is oval in cross-section while strait hair is round. Some people have curly hair and some have straight hair because we are different. Our eye color, hair color, skin tone, and if our hair is curly or straight are genetic.

One theory also tells that straight or curly hair is due to the temperature in which their ancestors have lived. Straight hair is a sign that the person has lived in a cooler climate, because it will lay flat to conserve body heat. Curly hair is known as a heat coil, meaning that it disperses heat more rapidly. Pepole from arctic regions have straight, oily hair. People who live in desert regions like the desert or in africa have curly hair to disperse the heat.

Difference between 32 bit and 64 bit processors

x86 is a very old technology that started with the 8086 family of processors. It has now evolved into the x86-32 version which is the most common version and its successor the x86-64 or more commonly known as x64. The move gradual shift to x64 has started quite early while there were still no major drawbacks seen in the pc market. This is because the first market to experience the problems related to x86 was those who run high end servers.

Running a system that has 32bit architecture means that you are always limited to what 32bits can point to. In this case, the problem stemmed from memory. A 32bit long pointer could only point to a maximum of 4.2billion addresses which is just about 4GB of memory. As such, it can only allocate up to 4GB of memory to a certain program even if it has 16GB of memory available. This limitation may never be a problem for a home setup but in a server environment, it presents a huge problem. That’s why x64 processors appeared very early for the consumers.

The x64 architecture still follows what x86 has but it improves on it by having 64bits in every address. This means that the memory capacity of the x64 architecture is the square of 4.2billion, which for now is an unimaginable amount of memory. That coupled with certain enhancements makes the x64 architecture a certainly great processor to replace its predecessor.

The problem with x64 is that the software for it isn’t really there yet. Although there are already operating systems that try to take advantage of the x64 architecture, most do not and there are even some that won’t run on an x64 OS. Eventually, the software meant for x64 architecture would arrive and all the 32bit hardware and software would become obsolete. But for now, the x64 architecture is still haunted by software incompatibilities that limit its appeal to the general public.


What is OpenID and how it works?

Many websites offer features that are only available to users who first log-in to the system. In a typical application, user identity is confirmed ("authenticated") upon entering the username and password for the account. This approach is straightforward and works, but there are drawbacks. Users are usually required to remember a username/password for every website they use, which can be problematic.

OpenID is an open standard that defines a way that web-based applications  can authenticate users by delegating the responsibility of authentication to identity providers. With OpenID, users have a single identity that can be used on any OpenID-enabled application, and they only need to remember one password.
In this article, I describe the OpenID authentication system and show how a web application built with Ruby on Rails can use OpenID to authenticate its users.

How OpenID works?
OpenID relies on the HTTP protocol to exchange messages between users and "identity providers." Consider a user named Bob, whose identity provider is myOpenID ( Bob uses the Drupal content-management system that happens to be an OpenID consumer. Here's the general workflow when Bob logs into his Drupal account through OpenID:
  1. Arthur visits any OpenID-driven website.
  2. Arthur enters his OpenID identity URI, "," in the login form and clicks a Submit button. That's his OpenID identity URI, which looks like a website address, but identifies Bob and his identity provider.
  3. Arthur's web browser is redirected to a web page served by myOpenID, where he is prompted for his password.
  4. Arthur enters his OpenID password and clicks a Submit button.
  5. myOpenID confirms Arthur's password, and his web browser is redirected to the website he opened with automated log-in.
Arthur entered his password only on the identity provider website, and never on the consumer website. The user's password is not shared with the consumer and only needs to be submitted once by users to the identity provider, preferably over a secure connection.

Following diagram best explains how OpenID works:

Benefits of using OpenID:
OpenID is an open standard that defines a way that web-based applications can authenticate users via a single identity. OpenID provides several benefits to users and developers. Users only need to remember one username (their identity URI) and password to access multiple applications. With a simple cookie and Remember Me checkbox, an OpenID identity provider can act as a convenient Single Sign-On (SSO) solution for someone who uses multiple OpenID consumers.

OpenID identity providers are responsible for the authentication of users It's now-a-days common for web apps to offer OpenID support as an alternative to traditional authentication methods, but letting experts handle password security reduces the risk of accounts being compromised.

You will be glad to know that Google also provides OpenID. Use to know your OpenID provided by Google.

Reference: Dr. Dobb's

Circuit Filter in Stock Market

SEBI has introduced a rule known as Circuit Breaker in stock market for both Index and Stock specific circuit limits. The circuit filter limit is introduced with intention to reduce the speculations in the market and stock specific trading.

There are two ways to apply circuit filter: Upper circuit filter and Lower circuit filter. So when buying stocks in the current stock markets you must first learn about the stock market and know the stock market prices and then consider online trading stocks.

Index-specific Circuit Filter:

This filter applies to either Sensex or Nifty whichever is breached earlier. Now there are three filters for Index based circuit viz 10%, 15% and 20%.
  • If either Sensex or Nifty falls 10% before 1:00 pm then trading halts for one hour in the market. If index drops after 1.00 pm but before 2:30 pm then trading halts for half hour. If the index drops after 2:30 pm then there will be no halt for trading at 10% level and market would continue trading for the remaining time.
  • If either Sensex or Nifty falls 15% before 1:00 pm then trading halts for two hour in the market. If index drops after 1:00 pm but before 2:00 pm then trading halts for one hour. If the index drops on or after 2:00 pm then there will be no trading for the remaining time.
  • In case of 20% drop in either of the index then the trading halts for the remaining day.
This percentage of circuit filters are revised after every quarter and new percentages are arrived for the next quarter.

Stock specific Circuit Filter:

Stock specific circuit filters are applied in both BSE and NSE index. The percentage for circuit filter limit is 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%. When a stock is on upper circuit limit then there will be only buyers in the market and no seller exists and hence the price is up. 

On the other hand lower circuit limit is when there are only sellers in the market for that stock and hence the stock price is down.

Online Aircraft Tracking

Ever wondered that you can now track aircrafts from your home?
Visit and enjoy the heights of technology.

Right to Information

Every citizen has a right to know how the Government is functioning. Right to Information empowers every citizen to seek any information from the Government, inspect any Government documents and seek certified photocopies thereof. Some laws on Right to Information also empower citizens to official inspect any Government work or to take sample of material used in any work.

Right to Information includes the right to:
a) Inspect works, documents, records.
b) Take notes, extracts or certified copies of documents or records.
c) Take certified samples of material.
d) Obtain information in form of printouts, diskettes, floppies, tapes, video , cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts.

"information" means any material in any form, including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force.

"record" includes:
a) Any document, manuscript and file
b) Any microfilm, microfiche, and facsimile copy of a document
c) Any reproduction of image or images embodied in such microfilm (whether enlarged or not); and
d) Any other material produced by a computer or any other device;

An applicant cannot ask for opinions/advice/views under the RTI Act, unless the opinion/advice/view is already on "record".

However, under Section 4(1)(d), an applicant can ask for "reasons" behind a administrative or quasi judicial decision of a public authority, especially if he is a "affected person".

Click here to lodge your complaint.